Screening nutricional en paciente crítico: Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 para detección del riesgo de malnutrición
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Enfermedad crítica
nutrición

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1.
Gómez E. Screening nutricional en paciente crítico: Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 para detección del riesgo de malnutrición. Rev Arg de Ter Int. [Internet]. 2 de agosto de 2021 [citado 26 de octubre de 2021];38. Disponible en: //revista.sati.org.ar/index.php/MI/article/view/750

Resumen

Resumen: Objetivos: Describir el riesgo de malnutrición mediante el Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 en pacientes críticos con la clasificación propuesta por expertos. Analizar la asociación utilizando los puntos de corte propuesto del Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 con la mortalidad, días de estancia en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva y estado nutricional. Diseño: Estudio de pruebas diagnósticas, estándar de referencia, analítico, observacional y transversal con datos de carácter retrospectivo. Realizado durante noviembre y diciembre de 2019. Ámbito: Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Pacientes: Se incluyeron 103 pacientes > 18 años con estancia en la Terapia Intensiva >24 horas. Los criterios de exclusión fueron pacientes en cuidados paliativos y faltantes de las variables analizadas. Intervenciones: Ninguna Variables de interés: Datos demográficos, motivo de ingreso, ventilación mecánica, duración ventilación mecánica, días de estancia en la Terapia Intensiva, Nutrition Risk Screening 2002 (riesgo de malnutrición ≥ 3 y alto riesgo ≥ 5), Valoración Global Subjetiva y mortalidad. Resultados: 49,5% fueron hombres con una edad [mediana (RIQ)] de 58 (47 - 67) años. La mitad (53,4%) presentó alto riesgo de malnutrición y sólo 6,8% no presentó riesgo. El alto riesgo de malnutrición tuvo una asociación estadísticamente significativa con la necesidad de Ventilación Mecánica (<0,05), estancia en la Terapia Intensiva (p 0,001), mortalidad (p 0,003) y estado nutricional según Valoración Global Subjetiva (<0,05).  Discusión: Futuros estudios controlados y aleatorizados deberían desarrollarse en pacientes con alto riesgo de malnutrición para determinar las posibles estrategias nutricionales en pos de prevenir la pérdida de masa muscular, los resultados clínicos desfavorables y la mortalidad asociada a la malnutrición. Conclusiones: El alto riesgo de malnutrición según los puntos de corte recomendados por expertos permitió distinguir pacientes con malnutrición según Valoración Global Subjetiva, mayor estadía en Terapia Intensiva y mortalidad.    
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